1 John 5:16-17 Sins that lead to death…

Sins that lead to death ….

1 John 5:16-17 “If any man see his brother sin a sin which is not unto death, he shall ask, and he shall give him life for them that sin not unto death. There is a sin unto death: I do not say that he shall pray for it. All unrighteousness is sin: and there is a sin not unto death.”

It would appear that “Sins unto death” as mentioned in 1 John 5:16-17 are clearly written about in Romans 1:19-32, 1 Corinthians 6:9-10, Galatians 5:19-21, Ephesians 5:3-5, Colossians 3:5.

These references show the attitude of adherence to the Torah by the people to be non-existent, even belligerent against YHVH. The bible teaches that eternal life is not a done deal.  That we must, in fact, put forth every effort, to endure, to run the race, to suffer hardship and to persevere to the end (Phil 3:13-14, Rom 2:7). This is as old as the Garden and the serpent….. did YHVH really say that? Let’s find out together.


Beginning with Paul, he opens the letter to the Romans introducing himself to the unknown, and more likely, non-Hebrew reader.

1:1 Paul, a servant (voluntary, full devoted, sense of subjection) of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle (ambassador, messenger), separated (appointed) unto the gospel of God,

Paul or Paulos is the Greek name equal to Shaul or Saul the Hebrew name. There is not an official change to his name at conversion as many denominations teach. They use this misunderstanding to purposefully lead people into a doctrine of dispensationalism.

  • Dispensationalism is a religious interpretive system for the Bible. It considers Biblical history as divided deliberately by God into defined periods or ages to each of which God has allotted distinctive administrative principles.

This letter is written nearly 30 years after the resurrection and the ONLY “Bible” the people had was The TaNaKh, or what we call the “Old Testament”, i.e. Genesis to Malachi. The people Paul is writing to are a mix of:

  1. Israelite descendants of the Northern tribes [Ephraim],
  2. Roman and Greek citizens in the Roman Empire, of whom, some have intermarried with the Israelites and are already converting to the belief in YHVH via Yeshua,
  3. The Goyim [all nations, pagan] that are inhabitants of the Roman Empire who seeking to understand belief in Yeshua.

Because of the previous Greek conquest by Alexander the Great, the primary language of the area is Greek and the common language of commerce is Greek. In Rome itself Latin is predominate yet they were commonly multi-lingual inhabitants like many European countries today.

The intent of this letter is to open the eyes of the people concerning the fulfilment of promises made by YHVH. How the life, death and resurrection of the Messiah has taken place right before their blinded eyes and how it was intended to bring them back into covenant. Notice it is BACK into covenant.

Here are some things that need to be well defined in this research. These are of epic importance to know, and refer to, when answering much of Paul’s writings.

Righteousness defined: Deuteronomy 6:25 “And it shall be our righteousness, if we observe to do all these commandments before YHWH our God, as he hath commanded us.”

  • Luke 1:3-6 “It seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus, That thou mightest know the certainty of those things, wherein thou hast been instructed. There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judaea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the course of Abia: and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth. And they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless.”
  • Matthew 19:26 “But Jesus beheld them, and said unto them, With men this is impossible; but with God all things are possible.”
  • Psalm 119:172 “My tongue shall speak of thy word: for all thy commandments are righteousness.”


Sin defined: 1 John 3:4 “Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law {Torah}: for sin is the transgression of the law.{Torah}”


Starting in Romans 1: 19 “Because that which may be known (understood clearly as fact) of God is manifest outwardly visible) in them; for God hath shewed (rendered apparent) it unto them.

20 For the invisible things (previously unseen) of him from the creation of the world (very beginning) are clearly seen (patently obvious), being understood (comprehended) by the things that are made (His workmanship), even his eternal power (strength) and Godhead (divine nature); so that they are without excuse: (incapable to refute)

21 Because that, when they knew** God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.

** (emphatically: to absolutely know, to know without exception..i.e. knowing, but not merely to know based on personal observation or perception, but also based on actual rational truth; not merely that which is based on or bound only by sight and experience; such knowing comes from Yahweh to completely grasp and have the comprehension of, as well as why and how, and to have the astuteness to apply it freely without error.)

(John 1:1 “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.”

John used the word “Word” in dual form here intentionally; to the Hebrew this meant “the breath or utterance of YHVH” or Genesis 1:1 “In the beginning YHVH created”; this is further expounded in Colossians 1:15-17 “The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For in him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things have been created through him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.” This was common and acceptable for the Hebrew listening/reading.

The rub would then come from the other major society of the era, the Greeks and Romans, the thinkers and philosophers. The word “Word” would be taken by them in their understanding as “Logos” meaning “the rational principle of the universe, gaining knowledge of another human through conversation to exceed over appearance only.”

John 1:4 In him was life, and that life was the light of all mankind.

Now that John has everyone’s attention John moves to the depth of Yeshua’ creation/existence. This sentence delivers the concrete and irrefutable deity of Jesus as an extension of the Spirit of YHVH. This is the only way God can bring His holy perfect presence anywhere close to humanity. The Hebrews could accept this thinking as they knew Moses was only allowed to look upon his backside and came down off Mt Sinai glowing like he had eaten a nuclear power plant.

To the Gentiles this was still an article to build the case for John’s position, so he continues with …. “There was a man sent from God whose name was John (the Baptist). He came as a witness to testify concerning that light, so that through him all might believe. He himself was not the light; he came only as a witness to the light.”

This let the Gentiles know that there had been a divinely appointed messenger [in the same accordance as the angels who were sent in the OT] proclaiming the coming of this personage of YHVH in Yeshua.

The part that speaks of deity are the words “In him” , In him was THE light. This explanation is like the sun, in the sun there is the essence of light and it continually produces light whether we are looking at it, or under a cloud, or hiding from it. The sun always produces light, and here too, Yeshua is always the essence of YHVH. He cannot shut it off.

The sad part for the Hebrews was this “he came unto his own and they knew Him not” …. they missed the eye witnesses point.


22 Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,

23 And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.

Idols and idolatry, this was a more than common practice among pagan religions including Rome [Mithras], Greece [Zeus], and Egypt [Osiris]. Likewise these cultures practiced polytheism thus having a multitude of statues and idols.

Deuteronomy 4:15-19 “Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves; for ye saw no manner of similitude on the day that the Lord spake unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire: Lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make you a graven image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness of male or female, The likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flieth in the air, The likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the waters beneath the earth: And lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven, shouldest be driven to worship them, and serve them, which the Lord thy God hath divided unto all nations under the whole heaven.

24 Wherefore God also gave them up (let go of them; dispossess) to uncleanness (moral impurity) through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonor (treat shamefully) their own bodies between themselves:

  • Another common practice among pagan religions: orgies. They believed in fertility gods and goddesses like Lilith, Aphrodite and Cybele.

25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served (gave homage) the creature (the thing or idea of religion) more than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.

26 For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections (disgusting sexual practices): for even their women did change the natural use (instinctive yearnings) into that which is against nature: (natural reproduction/i.re. sexual misconduct)

27 And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use (instinctive yearnings) of the woman, burned in their lust (irreverent wants) one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly (an indecency with the genitalia), and receiving in themselves that recompence (penalty) of their error (deviance) which was meet. (required)

Leviticus 18:22 “Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination.” Rome was replete with homosexuality.

28 And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate (evil, worthless) mind, to do those things which are not convenient; (convenient is a horribly translated word – this should be ‘accordingly proper’ or ‘violates instruction’)

29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate (quarreling), deceit, malignity; whisperers,

30 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, (if they could not find something hateful to do they made up something new to example just how wicked they could become, the first “Hells Angels”)

31 Without (refusing to) understanding (un/intelligent), covenant breakers (treacherous), without natural affection (hated mankind in general), implacable (not peaceful), unmerciful:

32 Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.

Think of the crowds that cheered on the gladiators, revelry in others misfortune, those that march for abortion, protestors for so called ‘rights’ that oppose the Word of God.


Saul/Paul delivers this same message to believers repeatedly throughout the then known world. To the Corinthians he says:
1 Corinthians 6:9-10 “Know ye not that the unrighteous [covenant breaking / devoid of Torah] shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators1, nor idolaters2, nor adulterers3, nor effeminate4, nor abusers of themselves with mankind5, Nor thieves6, nor covetous7, nor drunkards8, nor revilers9, nor extortioners10, shall inherit the kingdom of God.”

I can assure you, you will never see this “top 10” list on Letterman! What are these human propensities?

  1. G4205 πόρνος pornos (por’-nos) n. A. a (male) prostitute (for hire). B. (by analogy) a sex addict, a debauchee, a pornographer. C. (by extension) one who is sexually or morally unrestrained. [from pernemi “to sell” (akin to the base of G4097)]

To the untrained eye this would lead people to believe this word to mean “B” a sex addict or purveyor of nudity. While that is a social issue that needs addressed, I believe this is the combination of root of the word and all the listed definitions. A morally unrestrained male, creating debauchery, or lawlessness and getting paid for it! The televangelist, the tent revival faith healer, the big book deal makers and God fakers. You know them and loath them.

Deuteronomy 5:11 “Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.”


  1. G1496 εἰδωλολάτρης eidololatres (ei-d̮ō-lo-la’-trees) n. an image-servant or image-worshipper.

We can easily recognize the ‘religious’ groups that use these images. Buddha, Krishna, Vishnu, are all quick picks; yet harder to point out are the Valentines, St. Patrick’s, Queen Mother, Immaculate Hearts, Fathers/Mothers day and the thousands upon thousands of ‘holidays’ created by men.

Deuteronomy 5:7 “Thou shalt have none other gods before me.”

Deuteronomy 5:8 “Thou shalt not make thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the waters beneath the earth:”

  1. G3432 μοιχός moichos (moi-chos’) n. A. a (male) adulterer. B. (figuratively) apostate.

Again, we can see the duality of this definition. This certainly pertains to the apostate believer, but too, the apostate preacher.

Jeremiah 3:8 “And I saw, when for all the causes whereby backsliding Israel committed adultery I had put her away, and given her a bill of divorce; yet her treacherous sister Judah feared not, but went and played the harlot also.”

Ezekiel 22:26 “Her priests have violated my law, and have profaned mine holy things: they have put no difference between the holy and profane, neither have they shewed difference between the unclean and the clean, and have hid their eyes from my Sabbaths, and I am profaned among them.”

  1. G3120 μαλακός malakos (ma-la-kos’) adj. A. soft, B. a catamite. A pubescent boy who was the intimate companion of a young man, as the passive or receiving partner in anal intercourse with a man.
  2. G733 ἀρσενοκοίτης arsenokoites (ar-se-no-koi’-tees) n. a male homosexual, sodomite. A huge issue in the Greco-Roman world.

Leviticus 18:22 “Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination.”

  1. G2812 κλέπτης kleptes (klep’-tees) n. a stealer, a thief.

Deuteronomy 5:19,21 “Neither shalt thou steal. Neither shalt thou desire thy neighbour’s wife, neither shalt thou covet thy neighbour’s house, his field, or his manservant, or his maidservant, his ox, or his ass, or any thing that is thy neighbour’s.”

  1. G4123 πλεονέκτης pleonektes (ple-o-nek’-tees) n. holding (desiring) more, i.e. eager for gain (avaricious, hence a defrauder).

Deuteronomy 5:20 “Neither shalt thou bear false witness against thy neighbour.”

  1. G3183 μέθυσος methusos (me-thï ’-sos) n. A. tipsy. B. (as noun) a sot. Sot is a somewhat old-fashioned word for a heavy drinker, also known as a lush or a wino. (vocabulary.com)

Here is a hot topic among “Christians” all across the denominational lines. From my own experience, I can attest to several different religious affiliations, there is much to fight about. The total abstinence my mother and her southern Baptist ways, after having been scorned several times by drunkards, ruled the house I grew up in. So, naturally when I got a job and a car I got access to beer! Hello my Catholic buddies!

All sarcasm aside, is there anything YHVH says about it?

Proverbs 20:1 “Wine is a mocker; beer a carouser. Those it leads astray won’t become wise.”

I don’t see anywhere that a cold beer after a hot day in the yard while doing chores is not allowed. It’s the frat party mentality where YHVH cannot get to your rational. When the Creator cannot connect to the created there is trouble.

  1. G3060 λοίδορος loidoros (loi’-d̮o-ros) adj. abusive, i.e. a blackguard. [from loidos (mischief)]

This is the enticing to riot or the rebellion against YHVH and the commands. We see again in Deuteronomy 5:6-7 “I am the Lord thy God, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage. Thou shalt have none other gods before me.”

The rebellion against YHVH began with the serpent in the Garden, was strengthened at the Tower by Nimrod, and defined in Egypt and then conquered the world via the Greeks and Romans.

Deuteronomy 5:9-10 “Thou shalt not bow down thyself unto them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me, And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me and keep my commandments.”

  1. G727 ἅρπαξ harpax (har’-pax) adj. A. exceedingly and violently greedy, ravenously predatory, extortionate, rapacious. B. (thus) taking great pleasure in pursuing and successfully exploiting others (while thinking highly of themselves).

I find the root of this word very interesting … G726 ἁρπάζω harpazo (har-pa’-zō) v. to seize. This the same word used in the famous pretribulation rapture doctrine “caught up” in Thessalonians.  Here again Saul/Paul is addressing the fact that humans will use the position to persuade others to financial AND spiritual ruin.

Revelation 2:6 “But this thou hast, that thou hatest (hate, persecute) the deeds (work, actions) of the Nicolaitanes, which I also hate.”

Nicolaitans, a sect that adheres to subjugating (i.e. dominating and ruling over) a people while outwardly professing Christianity. possibly related or linked to the followers or practices of Balaam, getting people to worship Ba’al through deception.

*(Nikos = conquered / Laos = people/ Ton =the)*(The meaning is to have the leadership of the church gain a victory over the laity until they are compelled to submit to the dominion of men who have become that thing which God hates, false forms of worship. They lead lives of unrestrained indulgence professing that deeds done in the flesh had no bearing on the afterlife as men would not have fleshly bodies. Clement of Alexandria put forward a defense of Nicolas (in Stromata ii. 20, iii. 4) which Eusebius accepts and repeats (in Historia Ecclesiastica iii. 29).This is the origin of the canonized St. Nicholas.)


This same message is seen in Galatians and Ephesians, I won’t break them down as I did the passage in Romans, but suffice to say they are the same.


Galatians 5:19-21 “Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past (in the letters to the Romans, Hebrews and Corinthians), that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.”


Ephesians 5:3-5 “But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not be once named among you, as becometh saints; Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient: but rather giving of thanks. For this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.”

The prophet Isaiah told the Israelites to do deeds worthy of repentance and then, (because it was conditional upon their actions) God would forgive them – see Isaiah 1:16-20.

[16 Wash you, make you clean; put away the evil of your doings (stop doing these immoral actions) from before mine eyes; cease to do evil;

17 Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve (H833 אָשַׁר ‘ashar (aw-shar’) v. to be straight) the oppressed (H2541 חָמוֹץ chamowts (chaw-motse’) n-m. the cruel man.), judge (H8199 שָׁפַט shaphat (shaw-fat’) v.avenge) the fatherless (orphans, the bereaved person), plead for the widow. (James 1:27 “Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world.”

18 Come now, and let us reason (H3198 יָכחַ yakach (yaw-kach’) v. to decide, justify or convict.) together, saith the LORD: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool.

19 If ye be willing (H14 אָבָה ‘abah (aw-ɓaw’) v. to breathe after.) and obedient, ye shall eat the good of the land:

20 But if ye refuse and rebel (H4784 מָרָה marah (maw-raw’) v. to be bitter or unpleasant)., ye shall be devoured (consumed) with the sword:( H2719 חֶרֶב chereb (cheh’-reɓ) n-f. a cutting instrument from its destructive effect.) for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.

  • Genesis 3:24 “So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.”
  • Hebrews 4:12 “For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.”


The entirety of Chapter 18 in Ezekiel is a call to the Israelite (Bride of Christ) for repentance proven by their deeds (actions). Vs.9 “Hath walked in my statutes, and hath kept my judgments, to deal truly; he is just, he shall surely live, saith the Lord God.”


The bible is in perfect harmony on this point: For God to forgive sin there MUST be genuine repentance that is PROVEN by a change of mind (how we think) which leads to a change of lifestyle (how we live).


Genuine repentance leading to a change of life is taught in all the gospels and throughout the “New” Testament. The concept of “faith alone” has been preached for centuries and as such mention of any kind of ‘work’ or ‘deeds’ is frowned upon and seen as ‘trying to save yourself’.

Over and over again the bible tells us that we are going to be judged for our works/deeds.  John the Baptist taught this too: Luke 3:8 “Bring forth therefore fruits [deeds/actions] worthy of repentance, and begin not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, That God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham”.

As did Paul: Acts 26:20 “But shewed first unto them of Damascus, and at Jerusalem, and throughout all the coasts of Judaea, and then to the Gentiles, that they should repent and turn to God, and do works [deeds/actions] meet [worthy] for repentance”.


God is a rewarder of those who diligently seek him (Heb 11:6) and we are told to study and show ourselves approved (2 Tim 2:15).  This is essential if we are to follow the truth and abide in Jesus Christ.

1 Peter 1:9-12 “Receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls.  Of which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; which things the angels desire to look into.”

1 Corinthians 5:5 “To deliver such an one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.”

Philippians 1:3-6 “I thank my God upon every remembrance of you, Always in every prayer of mine for you all making request with joy, For your fellowship in the gospel from the first day until now; Being confident of this very thing, that he which hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ:”


Proverbs 10:2 “Treasures of wickedness profit nothing: but righteousness delivereth from death.”

Proverbs 11:4 “Riches profit not in the day of wrath: but righteousness delivereth from death.”

Isaiah 64:5-6 “Thou meetest him that rejoiceth and worketh righteousness, those that remember thee in thy ways: behold, thou art wroth; for we have sinned: in those is continuance, and we shall be saved. But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags; and we all do fade as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away.”

It is very evident that John is writing to us as a fellow sinner, being saved by grace, through faith. In the exact same manner as every follower of YHVH since Adam and continuing to the Last Great Day.

Romans 1:16-17… Nothing is impossible … including Torah!

16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to everyone that believeth; to the Jew (natural born Israelite) first, and also to the Greek. (those converting from paganism to belief in YHWH through Yeshua)

Paul is not saying God is going to show a preference in his grace to mankind, he is stating the fact that God had revealed His grace to the Israelite first, as a matter of chronology, and then to the rest of the world. This is not a transitional or dispensational theme.

In the Exodus we can see the truth of YHVH’s plan for mankind, ALL of mankind. Exodus 12:49 “One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.”

We also see this in the gospel of John 1:11-12 “He came unto his own, and his own received him not. But (therefore) as many as received him, to them gave He power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name” God is giving us the power to live in accordance to His commands.

17 For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith (belief) to faith (assurance): as it is written, The just (those set apart) shall live by faith.

  • “Behold, his soul which is lifted up is not upright in him: but the just shall live by his faith.” Habakkuk 2:4

It is my belief/discovery that “Sins leading to death” are a breaking of the instructions given by YHVH [Torah]. “Sins not leading to death” are those infractions against mankind that lead to breaking Torah and need the grooming of the Holy Spirit to overcome. (example: A person that gets drunk on a single specific occasion versus the every weekend partier or the daily wino.)

Romans 10:10 “For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession (repentance) is made unto salvation.”



One thought on “1 John 5:16-17 Sins that lead to death…

Add yours

  1. Wow! In depth and lots to review!
    All sin leads to death. But, a sinner who turns from his sins (according to Torah) by Faith will live. Thus, our need for a great high priest in the heavenly holy of holies.
    Note: the apostles went to the synagogues. Many of the divorced Northern Kingdom (“Ephraim”) were inter-married and living under Roman rule but still going to the synagogue. Luke was a synagogue leader!
    I especially like how you explain Nicolas and how you link Nicolaitanism with the “early church father”, Clement, and Eusebius who tinkered with the NT to fit his beliefs, created a 3 1/2 year ministry by adding John 6:4, and did many dirty deeds in the name of religion.
    There was one explanation of Nicolas’ teachings that I ran across In my historical research: he and his followers believed one could participate in the polytheistic festivals and still believe in Jesus. Forget Acts 15 and the decision by the Jerusalem council. So, it was all about control and creating a Savior that has no rules. This is what we have inherited! Jeremiah 16:19!
    Now, we can see why Paul had been abandoned by the Roman church at the end of his life. They were creating a new religion which became the Holy Roman Catholic Church by 106 CE, organized and written about by the “early church fathers”, an extension of Roman religious hierarchy. Mixing of seeds …

    Liked by 1 person

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